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19种英文修辞手法和例句大全

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吉米 发表于 2016-2-18 07:21:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 三T上人 于 2016-7-22 19:17 编辑 <br /><br />很少有人认真总结全部英语中修辞手法的运用方式,下面这篇文章可以说是收藏级帖子,值得同学收藏学习。
1.Simile 明喻
明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比.这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性。标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等.
例如:
1>.He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow.
2>.I wandered lonely as a cloud.
3>.Einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.


2.Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻
隐喻是简缩了的明喻,是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成。
例如:
1>.Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.
2>.Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.


3.Metonymy 借喻,转喻
借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称.
I.以容器代替内容,例如:
1>.The kettle boils. 水开了.
2>.The room sat silent. 全屋人安静地坐着.
II.以资料.工具代替事物的名称,例如:
Lend me your ears, please. 请听我说.
III.以作者代替作品,例如:
a complete Shakespeare 莎士比亚全集
VI.以具体事物代替抽象概念,例如:
I had the muscle, and they made money out of it. 我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱.


4.Synecdoche 提喻
提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般.
例如:
1>.There are about 100 hands working in his factory.(部分代整体)
他的厂里约有100名工人.
2>.He is the Newto(微博)n of this century.(特殊代一般)
他是本世纪的牛顿.
3>.The fox goes very well with your cap.(整体代部分)
这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配.


5.Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉
这种修辞法是以视.听.触.嗅.味等感觉直接描写事物.通感就是把不同感官的感觉沟通起来,借联想引起感觉转移,“以感觉写感觉”。
通感技巧的运用,能突破语言的局限,丰富表情达意的审美情趣,起到增强文采的艺术效果。比如:欣赏建筑的重复与变化的样式会联想到音乐的重复与变化的节奏;闻到酸的东西会联想到尖锐的物体;听到飘渺轻柔的音乐会联想到薄薄的半透明的纱子;又比如朱自清《荷塘月色》里的“ 微风过处送来缕缕清香,仿佛远处高楼上渺茫的歌声似的”。
例如:
1>.The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.(用视觉形容听觉,鸟落在树上,由它发出的声音联想到百合花)
鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音.
2>.Taste the music of Mozart.(用嗅觉形容听觉)
品尝Mozart的音乐.


6.Personification 拟人
拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物.
例如:
1>.The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads.(把夜拟人化)
2>.I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.(把鸟拟人化)


7.Hyperbole 夸张
夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的.它可以加强语势,增加表达效果.
例如:
1>.I beg a thousand pardons.
2>.Love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.
3>.When she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.


8.Parallelism 排比, 平行
这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语.句子排列成串,形成一个整体.
例如:
1>.No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.
2>.In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, to answer for them. In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.


9.Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法
婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话.
例如:
1>.He is out visiting the necessary. 他出去方便一下.
2>.His relation with his wife has not been fortunate. 他与妻子关系不融洽.
3>.Deng Xiaoping passed away in 1997. (去世)


10.Allegory 讽喻,比方(原意“寓言”)
建立在假借过去或别处的事例与对象之上,传达暗示,影射或者讥讽现世各种现象的含义。
英文解释:an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances; an extended metaphor 摘自英语专业《大学英语教程》一书。
这是一种源于希腊文的修辞法,意为"换个方式的说法".它是一种形象的描述,具有双重性,表层含义与真正意味的是两回事.
例如:
1>.Make the hay while the sun shines.
表层含义:趁着出太阳的时候晒草
真正意味:趁热打铁
2>.It's time to turn plough into sword.
表层含义:是时候把犁变成剑


11.Irony 反语
反语指用相反意义的词来表达意思的作文方式.如在指责过失.错误时,用赞同过失的说法,而在表扬时,则近乎责难的说法.
例如:
1>.It would be a fine thing indeed not knowing what time it was in the morning.
早上没有时间观念还真是一件好事啊(真实含义是应该明确早上的时间观念)
2>"Of course, you only carry large notes, no small change on you. "the waiter said to the beggar.


12.Pun 双关
双关就是用一个词在句子中的双重含义,借题发挥.作出多种解释,旁敲侧击,从而达到意想不到的幽默.滑稽效果.它主要以相似的词形.词意和谐音的方式出现.
例如:
1>.She is too low for a high praise, too brown for a fair praise and too little for a great praise.
2>.An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.
3>.If we don't hang together, we shall hang separately.


13.Parody 仿拟
这是一种模仿名言.警句.谚语,改动其中部分词语,从而使其产生新意的修辞.
例如:
1>.Rome was not built in a day, nor in a year.
2>.A friend in need is a friend to be avoided.
3>.If you give a girl an inch nowadays she will make address of it.
14.Rhetorical question 修辞疑问(反问)
它与疑问句的不同在于它并不以得到答复为目的,而是以疑问为手段,取得修辞上的效果,其特点是:肯定问句表示强烈否定,而否定问句表示强烈的肯定.它的答案往往是不言而喻的.
例如:
1>.How was it possible to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing worth of note?
2>.Shall we allow those untruths to go unanswered?
15.Antithesis 对照,对比,对偶
这种修辞指将意义完全相反的语句排在一起对比的一种修辞方法.
例如:
1>.Not that I loved Caeser less but that I loved Romemore.
2>.You are staying; I am going.
3>.Give me liberty, or give me death.


16.Paradox 隽语
这是一种貌似矛盾,但包含一定哲理的意味深长的说法,是一种矛盾修辞法.
例如:
1>.More haste, less speed.欲速则不达
2>.The child is the father to the man.(童年时代可决定人之未来)三岁看大,四岁看老。


17.Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻
这也是一种矛盾修辞法,用两种不相调和的特征形容一个事物,以不协调的搭配使读者领悟句中微妙的含义.
例如:
1>.No light, but rather darkness visible.没有光亮,黑暗却清晰可见
2>.The state of this house is cheerless welcome.


18.Climax 渐进法,层进法
这种修辞是将一系列词语按照意念的大小.轻重.深浅.高低等逐层渐进,最后达到顶点.可以增强语势,逐渐加深读者印象.
例如:
1>.I am sorry, I am so sorry, I am so extremely sorry.
2>.Eye had not seen nor ear heard, and nothing had touched his heart of stone.


19.Anticlimax 渐降法
与climax相反的一种修辞法,将一系列词语由大到小,由强到弱地排列.
例如:
1>.On his breast he wears his decorations, at his side a sword, on his feet a pair of boots.
2>.The duties of a soldier are to protect his country and peel potatoes.


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zlz1999 发表于 2016-2-20 00:36:38 | 显示全部楼层
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abuhan 发表于 2016-2-20 16:44:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 三T上人 于 2016-7-22 19:17 编辑 <br /><br />有用!

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tt-dd 发表于 2016-2-23 08:25:35 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 三T上人 于 2016-7-22 19:17 编辑 <br /><br />

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zspkd 发表于 2016-3-1 02:23:25 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 三T上人 于 2016-7-22 19:17 编辑 <br /><br />厉害!

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