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英语常见错误 Common Mistakes in English

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ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:28:07 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

Common Mistakes in English


Common Mistakes in English

This section focuses on the common mistakes made by English learners. When we are learning a language, we tend to get confused between some words or phrases and are unsure about their correct usage.

Please find the list of such mistakes on the left under ‘Common Mistakes in English’ below:


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Pgain  在2012-10-11 04:07  送朵鲜花  并说:我非常同意你的观点,送朵鲜花鼓励一下
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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:28:46 | 显示全部楼层
(1)  Their, There and They're

Their, There and They're

‘There’, ’Their’ and ‘They’re’ has confused many speakers of the English language and knowing how to use these three words correctly is an important step in learning English.

The words ‘There’ and’ Their’ are homophones, two words that are spelt differently but pronounced the same. It is a common mistake to replace one for the other.

‘There’ will always refer to a place, whether concrete or abstract whereas ‘Their’ shows belonging or possession.

Let’s look at these examples:

How can anyone live there, let’s go there, there will be a party tomorrow etc.

Let us buy their car, let’s us not go to their house, return their books tomorrow etc.

They are sitting there in their car.

In this sentence, notice how ‘there’ is used to signify a place whereas ‘their’ is used to show possession. The word ‘they’re’ is a contraction of the word they and are and should not be confused with their and there. Let’s look at these examples:

They are nice people becomes they’re nice people.

They are going to lead the group becomes they’re going to lead the group.

To avoid confusion, replace the word ‘there’ with ‘here’, ‘ their’ with ‘our’ and ‘they’re’ with ‘they are’. If the sentence makes sense, you’ve got it right. Consider these:

Their house is small, our house is small.

We will meet you there, we will meet you here.

They’re going home, they are going home.

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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:29:14 | 显示全部楼层

(2) Can and May


Can and May

Many English speakers are confused about the usage of the words ‘can’ and ‘may’. For e.g.,  ‘Can I drink water?’  is incorrect. ‘May I drink water?’ is the correct phrase to use in this case.

The key difference between ‘can’ and ‘may’ is that ‘can’ talks about ability and ‘may’ talks about permission.

CAN

Can is used in two cases:

To talk about ability.

  • I can finish my homework by 5 pm.
  • Can you finish your homework tonight?

To ask or give permission informally.

  • Can I use your pen? (To a friend)
  • You can use my pen. (To a friend)

MAY

May is generally used to ask or give permission formally.

Let us take a situation between a student and a teacher.

  •   May I drink water?
  •   Teacher: Yes, you may.

      Let us take a situation between two strangers.

  • May I borrow your pen?
  • Yes, you may.

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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:29:50 | 显示全部楼层

(4) Accept and Except


Accept and Except

The words, ‘accept’ and ‘except’ are homophones which are often confused by English speakers. ‘Accept’ is a verb which means ‘to receive’ or ‘to agree’. Most of the time ‘except’ is used as a preposition which means ‘excluding’.

The following examples will make the usage clear.



ACCEPT (VERB)                                      

EXCEPT (PREPOSITION)

Amit accepted the job offer.

I can come with you on all days except Sunday.

Sanjiv accepted the allegation that he had cheated.

All the athletes except Anjali finished the race.

He accepted the invitation to the party.

Everyone except Shantanu was invited to the party.



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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:30:26 | 显示全部楼层

(5) Effect and Affect


Effect and Affect

Two words commonly confused by English speakers are 'effect' and 'affect'. ‘Affect’ is used as a verb and means ‘to have an influence on’ and ‘Effect’ is used as a noun and means ‘the result’.

AFFECT

The dropped catch did not affect the result of the game.
The heavy rainfall affected the grains kept in the old warehouse.

EFFECT

The effect of the tsunami was devastating.
The side effect of the cough syrup was drowsiness.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:31:00 | 显示全部楼层

(6) Correct Usage of Their, There and They're


It's vs Its

‘Its’ and ‘it’s’ are often mistakenly used in written English. Refer to the article on contractions: ‘it’s’ is a contraction for the words ‘it is’. On the other hand, ‘its’ is a possessive noun.


The following examples will make the usage clear.


IT’S (CONTRACTION FOR ‘IT IS’)

ITS (POSSESSION)

It’s quite hot today.

The dog is wagging its tail.

It’s going to be a long day.

The baby is sleeping in its cot.

Please go back to class immediately. It’s not right to skip classes.

The table is useless now. Its legs are broken.



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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:33:14 | 显示全部楼层

(7) Since and For


Since and For

The words ‘since’ and ‘for’ are often confused by English language speakers. There is a simple rule to follow to differentiate between the usage of these two words.

SINCE is used to talk about time from a specific period while FOR is used to talk about a length of time.

I have been living in Delhi since 1982.
I have been living in Delhi for twenty years.

I have been studying since seven a.m. today.
I have been studying for eight hours.

My tutor has taught me since January this year.
My tutor has taught me for five months.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:34:41 | 显示全部楼层

(8) Who and Whom


Who and Whom

Many English speakers confuse the words ‘who’ and ‘whom’. We tend to use them interchangeably which is often incorrect.


Both ‘who’ and ‘whom’ are interrogative pronouns. The key difference between ‘who’ and ‘whom’ is that ‘who’ is used in place of the subject of the sentence and ‘whom’ is used in place of the object of the sentence.

WHO’ REPLACES THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE


  • Who told you?
  • Who is singing?
  • Who wants to eat?
  • Who hit Sanjiv?

WHOM’ REPLACE THE OBJECT OF THE SENTENCE


Whom are you talking about?
Whom is this food for?
With whom did you go to the market? Whom did Rajiv hit?


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:35:29 | 显示全部楼层

(9)  Where, Were and Wear


Where, Were and Wear

The words 'where' and 'wear' may sound the same but they differ in meaning. Many people make the mistake of using one for the other. Read this article to find out when to use which one.
The word 'where' is used when asking a question related to a location.

  • Where are you going?
  • Where will we eat?
  • Where did you keep the money?

On the other hand, the word 'wear' has a couple of meanings.

It is used to refer to an article or clothing that a person has put on or is ‘wearing’. Let us look at some examples.

  • What will you wear today?
  • Are you sure you are wearing enough?
  • Wear something fancy.

The other meaning of the word 'wear' is to denote deterioration (exhaustion) or to produce something by friction. (Past tense- worn)

  • In such weather, tires wear out fast.
  • Those jeans are worn out.
  • Working in the blazing sun can wear out a worker.
Usage of We're and Were

Two other words that sound somewhat similar are 'we’re' and 'were'. Let us look at how they are used.
The word we’re is a of the phrase 'we are'.

  • We are going tomorrow.
    We’re going tomorrow.
  • We are working together.
    We’re working together.
  • There is no point going if we are not going together.
    There is no point going if we’re not going together.

The word ‘were’ is used to refer to something that happened in the past.

  • What were you doing?
  • Were you eating?
  • Were you in this school?

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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:38:34 | 显示全部楼层

(10) Correct Usage of I and Me


Correct Usage of 'I' and 'Me'

Speakers of English often use ‘I’ and ‘me’ in place of each other. The difference is actually very simple. Allow us to explain.

Let us begin with an exercise. Fill in the blanks with either ‘I’ or ‘me’ in the following sentences.

  • __ want to watch a movie.                              

  • This is the house __ want to buy.                                                               

  • Sudhir and __ will go to Delhi.            

  • You and __ will play today.                              

  • He asked __ to drive.                                

  • She needs to pay __.                        

  • He gave __ the key.  


The answer to the first four sentences is ‘I’. This is because ‘I’ is a pronoun and hence must be the subject of a verb ('I' is the first person singular subject pronoun and will always refer to the person performing the action of a verb).

On the other hand, ‘me’ is a pronoun that must be the object of the verb (me is an object pronoun and will always refer to the person that the action of a verb is being done to.)


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:39:14 | 显示全部楼层

(11) Usage of Then and Than


Usage of 'Then' and 'Than'

The similar sounding words ‘then’ and than’ confuse many English speakers and if you find yourself using one for the other, please go through this article.

The word ‘than’ is used to show comparison and is a conjunction (A conjunction is a word that joins two sentences).

  • Adhir is smarter than Dinesh.

  • Homemade food is healthier than fast-food.

  • He is older than you.


On the other hand, the word ‘then’ is used either to show a sequence of events or a sense of time. Read the examples carefully to understand.

  • If you get full marks, then I will buy you a car.

  • Finish your homework and then we will go out for dinner.

  • I will reach home at night. I will call you then.

  • I will get free at 5. Can we meet then?


Notice how the first two sentences show a sequence of events and the next two show a sense of time. The speaker in sentence 3 and 4 is referring to particular time (‘at night’ and ‘at 5’).

Note:- When confused, think about what you’re trying to say/write. Only if you’re comparing will you use ‘than’, for every other situation, use ‘then’.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:39:53 | 显示全部楼层

(12) Usage of Myself


Usage of 'Myself'

You may have come across many people introducing themselves by saying, “Hi, myself Harish.” This is wrong. Instead, say, “I am Harish.” 'Me', 'I' and 'myself' are all used to refer to the same person (that person is you) but cannot be used interchangeably. Understanding their usage is an important part of learning English.

The first thing to understand is that ‘myself’ is neither a replacement for me, nor for I. The word ‘myself’ is a pronoun and is used to lay emphasis. Take a look at the following sentences.

  • I will do it.                                I will do it myself.

  • I cleaned the house.            I cleaned the house myself.

  • I fixed the car.                         I fixed the car myself.


All the three examples make sense and mean the same with or without the use of ‘myself’. As stated earlier, it is used only for stress and never alone. Also, myself can never be used with ‘me’, which is an object pronoun.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:40:49 | 显示全部楼层

(13) Elicit and Illicit


Elicit and Illicit

‘Elicit’ and ‘illicit’ are homophones, but they have different spellings and meanings and one must be careful about using them.

On the one hand, ‘elicit’ means to draw something out of someone, by coaxing or pleading or urging. For example, the sentence - His father was unable to elicit a response from him on the matter means that the father could not extract the information that he desired from his son.

On the other hand, ‘illicit’ means illegal, or forbidden. Examples: Theirs was an illicit relationship because their parents were opposed to inter-caste marriages, or He was thrown into prison for smuggling illicit weapons into the country.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:41:19 | 显示全部楼层

(14) So and Such


So and Such

It is easy to get confused about the usage of ‘so’ and ‘such’, as their structures are quite similar. However, they are not one and the same in terms of meaning or usage. For example, the sentence He is so good friend is glaringly wrong, as is The sky is such beautiful today. The difference can be illustrated using a simple formula:

  • ‘So’ is followed necessarily by an adjective. In technical terms, it takes the adjective phrase.

    • Formula: ‘so’ + adjective + ‘that’.

    • For example: The movie was so scary that I couldn’t watch it till the end.

    • ‘that’ is optional. Therefore, the above sentence would work just as well without ‘that’: The movie was so scary, I couldn’t watch it till the end.


  • ‘Such’ is followed by an article, the adjective, and then the noun. In technical terms, it takes the noun phrase.

    • Formula: ‘such’ + article + adjective + noun + ‘that’

    • For example: We chose such a scary movie to go for that I couldn’t even watch it till the end.

    • Again, ‘that’ is optional. If ‘that’ in the above sentence were to be replaced with a comma, it would still work.

    • Note: the article after ‘such’ is used when the noun is countable; that is to say, when it is something that can be expressed in numbers. For example, ‘car’, ‘dog’ and ‘book’ are countable nouns, as there can be a number assigned to each, such as ‘5 cars’ or ‘2 dogs’. For uncountable nouns, such as ‘food’, ‘milk’ or ‘water’ or ‘air’, the article is dropped. For example,

      • ‘I had such good food at home the other day.’

      • ‘We were blessed with such good weather on the trip.’





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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:42:28 | 显示全部楼层

(15) Threw and Through


Threw and Through

Confusion regarding the use of ‘threw’ and ‘through’ arises from the fact that they are homophones, ie, they are pronounced the same way. As a result, it is quite possible for one to be mistakenly used in place of the other. However, there is no similarity in their meanings:

  • Threw’ is the simple past tense of ‘throw’, when the latter is used as a verb.

    • meaning(s): to hurl or cast something from the hand or to project one’s voice. He threw the ball at the stumps, looking to run the batsman out.


  • Through’ is generally used as a preposition. Meaning, in brief:

    • to get into something from one end or side and come out the other. Example - The sunlight coming through the window woke me up.

    • to travel over or across or in something. Example - The plane hurtled through the air at supersonic speed.

    • to go past or beyond something. Example -The fugitives went through three red lights before the cops finally caught up with them.

    • to go from one to another of, or between or among individual members of something. Example -Tarzan swung through the trees like the forest was his natural habitat; The World Cup may have passed through many hands, but it is now India’s.




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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:43:24 | 显示全部楼层

(16) When and If


When and If

‘When’ and ‘if’ are both used while referring to the future, as in I will be able to see you in the evening when I get off work and I will be able to see in the evening if I get off work. The difference between the two words is very basic and easily understood:

  • ‘When’ should be used while referring to something that one is certain will happen. The ‘when’ in ‘I will be able to see you in the evening when I get off work’ implies that the speaker is sure that s/he will get free from work in the evening.

  • ‘If’ should be used while referring to something that might or might not happen. The ‘if’ in ‘I will be able to see you in the evening if I get off work’ implies that the speaker is not sure that s/he will get free from work in the evening; it is a possibility, not a certainty.


However, it must be noted that ‘when’ and ‘if’ can be used interchangeably as well, in case the situation being referred to is predictable or repetitive. For example, the sentences ‘When I am in Calcutta, I stay with my family’ and ‘If I am in Calcutta, I stay with my family’ effectively mean the same thing. Another example is, ‘When you leave milk out, it ferments’ and ‘If you leave milk out, it ferments’.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:45:03 | 显示全部楼层

(17) Advice and Advise


Advice and Advise

‘Advice’ and ‘advise’ can easily be mistaken, but the difference between the two is simple enough. In British English,

·         ‘advice’ acts as a noun, defined as ‘opinion about what could or should be done about a situation or problem; counsel’, and

·         ‘advise’ acts a  verb, meaning ‘to give advice’.

Therefore,

His father’s advice was for him to give the matter thought before reaching a conclusion about what to do. = His father advised him to give the matter thought before reaching a conclusion about what to do.

The ‘c’ in ‘advice’ is pronounced like the ‘s’ in ‘sip’, whereas the ‘s’ in ‘advise’ is pronounced like the ‘z’ in ‘zip’.

In American English, this distinction between the two words is not always maintained.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:46:42 | 显示全部楼层

(18) Adapt and Adopt


Adapt and Adopt

‘Adapt’ and ‘adopt’ share similar spellings and similar meanings, but they are not one and the same.

To ‘adapt’ is to become or make something suitable to an environment or condition.

            It took me a long time after college to adapt to life in the office.

            An inability to adapt will prove an obstacle on the road to success.

To ‘adopt’ is to take something and use it as or make it your own.

            I adopted his policy of neutrality and stayed out of trouble.

            We are planning to adopt a child.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:47:25 | 显示全部楼层

(19) Adverse and Averse


Adverse and Averse

‘Adverse’ and ‘averse’ are not only spelled similarly (with the ‘d’ in ‘adverse’ being the only difference), they are also both adjectives with negative connotations, and hence easily confused.

‘Adverse’ means, roughly, ‘unfavourable’, or ‘harmful’. Therefore, if a sportsman is said to perform well in adverse conditions, it means that he or she performs well in conditions that are not easy to play in. It is used in reference to things, actions or events, rather than people.

‘Averse’ describes a strong disinclination. It is used of things and people, but we never speak of an averse thing or person. It is most often used in the form averse to, as in I am averse to speaking in public.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:48:30 | 显示全部楼层

(20) Bought and Brought


Bought and Brought

The difference between these two words is a very simple one. They are the past tenses of two different verbs.

‘Bought’ is the past tense of ‘buy’: I bought a new car last week.

‘Brought’ is the past tense of ‘bring’: I brought him a glass of water.

The difference can be remembered easily too, as ‘bring’ shares the its first two letters with ‘brought’ (‘br’).


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:50:14 | 显示全部楼层

(21) Compliment and Complement


Compliment and Complement

‘Complement’ and ‘compliment’ are sometimes confused because they are pronounced the same and have very similar spellings. Both function as noun and verb, but are quite distinct in meaning.

As a noun, ‘compliment’ refers to an expression of esteem, admiration or praise. For example, to call someone handsome/beautiful is to pay him/her a compliment, and the verb refers to this action, ie, the paying of a compliment.

On the other hand, as a noun, the ‘complement’ of something supplies what that something is missing, ie, completes or perfects it. For example, wine can be said to complement a meal.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:51:09 | 显示全部楼层

(22) Dairy and Diary


Dairy and Diary

The words ‘dairy’ and ‘diary’, while having spellings that are confusingly similar, have no common meanings.

‘Dairy’ works as an adjective, meaning anything that is derived from milk, and a noun, meaning an establishment that produces dairy products. I am allergic to dairy products.

‘Diary’ is a noun, referring to a written record of one’s personal experiences. I write in my diary every night.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:52:10 | 显示全部楼层

(23) Each and Every


Each and Every

‘Each’ and ‘every’ are determiners, words that are ‘used with singular nouns to indicate quantity’. There are differences between the two that are important to grasp for usage, though.

  • ‘Each’ is used when there are two objects; here ‘every’ is not used. For example,
  •   He wore multiple bracelets on each hand (note: singular noun).
  •   There were two of them. They each carried backpacks, and each backpack (note: singular noun) contained invaluable souvenirs.

            In case there are more than two objects, either of the two may be used.

  •    He wanted each/every item on the catalogue.
  •    There is a bathroom in each/every room.
  • ‘Each’ can be used as a pronoun, but ‘every’ cannot. Note the difference between the following sentences:

  • The students were waiting for the question sheets to be handed out. Each was in a state of great nervousness.
  • The students were waiting for the question sheets to be handed out. Every student/one of them was in a state of great nervousness.

Clearly, ‘each’ replaces the noun ‘student’. ‘Every’ does not; it requires to be followed by the noun, or by ‘one of them’.

  • With adverbs (practically, nearly, almost, etc), only ‘every’ in used. In the following sentences, ‘every’ cannot be replaced by ‘each’:

  • She knew practically every detail of his daily routine.
  • Nearly every fruit on the cart was spoilt.

  • ‘Every’ is used to refer to repeated, regular events, as in the following cases:
  • We meet every so often
  •   I get a health check-up done every six months.
  • I had to take a water break after every other set.

            In the above examples and any similar instances, ‘each’ cannot be used.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:53:17 | 显示全部楼层

(24) Do and Make


Do and Make

The words ‘do’ and ‘make’ are often confused. While they are similar, there are differences between them that must be noted.

‘Do’ is used as follows:

  • For daily activities.

Do homework.

Do the dishes.

  • In general reference, ie, when one does not have a specific activity in mind.

I’m not doing anything tonight.

You are doing too much for one person.

  • In standard expressions, ie, collocations (verb + noun combinations) that have become standardised through usage.

Do one’s best.

Do a favour.

‘Make’, on the other hand, is used:

  • To describe an activity that produces something tangible.

Make coffee.

Make breakfast.

  • In standard expressions.

Make room.

Make do.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:53:40 | 显示全部楼层

(25) Hear and Listen


Hear and Listen

To any layman, ‘hearing’ and ‘listening’ may appear to be one and the same thing, but there is a subtle difference between the two words.

At one level, they are of course both functions of the ear that involve receiving sounds and processing them. However, herein lies the difference: any sound that is received by the ear and noted by the brain can be said to have been ‘heard’; it is only when a conscious effort is made to hear something that ‘listening’ comes into play.

For example, if the sounds from a conversation carry to you, but you make no effort to understand what is being said, you must say that you ‘heard’ the conversation. On the other hand, as soon as you make a conscious effort to understand or pay attention to what you are hearing, you are ‘listening’. Therefore, we do not ‘hear’ songs, we ‘listen’ to them (unless, of course, they are simply part of the background and we aren’t actually paying attention to them).

It must be noted that ‘hear’ can be used in place of ‘listen’ sometimes, but ‘listen’ should not be used in place of ‘hear’. For example, you may tell someone that you heard what he or she said, and it is understood that you were listening, ie, paying attention. These variations you will learn with practice in conversation.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:54:17 | 显示全部楼层

(26) Much and Many


Much and Many

‘Much’ and ‘many’ are both determiners that suggest an unspecified quantity, with more or less the same basic meaning: ‘in great quantity’ or ‘in large number’. There is, however, a distinction in their usage.

‘Much’, not ‘many’, is used for uncountable nouns, which are in singular form.

I have much faith in him.

How much money do you have in your wallet?

There was much compassion in his voice.

On the other hand, ‘many’ is used for countable nouns, which are in plural form, and here ‘much’ cannot be used.

            Many youngsters today are taking to atheism.

            How many days remain?

            There are many obstructions ahead for us.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:55:05 | 显示全部楼层

(27) See and Watch


See and Watch

‘See’ and ‘watch’ are words that are commonly misunderstood as being interchangeable, but while both refer to the optic function, they are not one and the same thing. They stand for different ways of using the eye.

‘To see’ something is simply to look at it or spot it; it may be unintentional, ie, you may not have been looking for it. I saw a man up ahead.

‘To watch’ something is look at something closely or intently, generally because it is moving. I watched the movie.

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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:55:44 | 显示全部楼层

(28) Loose and Lose


Loose and Lose

‘Lose’ and ‘loose’ are often mixed up, and this is understandable because there is only an ‘o’ of difference between them. They do not, however, have any meanings in common.

‘Loose’ is generally used as an adjective, the opposite of tight or contained.

            The dog is running loose in the streets.

            These jeans are loose around my waist.

‘Lose’ is a verb that means to suffer the loss of, to miss.

            Don’t lose the car keys.

            We cannot afford to lose this match.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:57:12 | 显示全部楼层

(29) Have and Has


Have and Has

‘Have’ and ‘has’ are both used to denote possession, form the perfect tense, and the past tense of both is ‘had’, but they are used differently.

‘Have’ is used with

  • the following pronouns: I, you, we, they. I have a pencil. We have a big house.
  • pluralised nouns: Doctors must have a rough time, dealing with illnesses all the time.

‘Has’ is used with the third person singular (he, she, it). She has your money. Amit has the book.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:57:39 | 显示全部楼层

(30) Some and Any


Some and Any

Both ‘some’ and ‘any’ are used to refer to indefinite quantities, ie, when it is not necessary to specify a number. For example, I would like some milk indicates that the speaker wants milk, but it is not stated how much of it he or she wants. Similarly, Is there any cake left? does not specify how much cake the speaker wants there to be; any amount will do for the purposes of the question. There are important differences between the two that must be grasped for usage, however.

Some

‘Some’ is commonly used in affirmative statements, such as I would like to have some fun.

‘Any’ is hardly ever used in such statements, except to emphasise that the quality of the object does not matter. For example, I would like any apples suggests that the speaker does not care what kind of apples they are (indicating a desperate need or desire for apples), whereas I would like some apples does not suggest anything about the quality of the apples or desperation of the speaker.

Any

‘Any’ is commonly used in negative statements, such as We do not have any apples. Here, ‘some’ may not be used.

‘Any’ is also used in affirmative statements, if the statements contain negative words such as ‘hardly’, ‘barely’, ‘never’, ‘without’, ‘little’, etc. For example, We hardly have any apples cannot be rewritten as We hardly have some apples.

In questions

While both ‘any’ and ‘some’ can both be used in questions, ‘any’ is more common and natural in this form.

Do you have any apples? can be rewritten as Do you have some apples? However, ‘some’ is not always applicable. For example, in the case of Do you have any idea what the score is?, ‘any’ cannot be replaced by ‘some’.

‘Some’ is more commonly used in offers and requests, such as Would you like some tea?

If clauses

Both ‘some’ and ‘any are common in ‘if’ clauses, with similar meanings, as in If you need some/any assistance, feel free to give me a ring.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:58:19 | 显示全部楼层

(31) Beside and Besides


Beside and Besides

It is easy to confuse ‘beside’ and ‘besides’, but they are not one and the same thing. ‘Beside’ is a preposition, whereas ‘besides’ works as both a preposition and an adverb, and although ‘besides’ is sometimes used in place of ‘beside’, they have distinct meaning.

‘Beside’ means ‘by or at the side of’. He stood beside his new car proudly.

As a preposition, ‘besides’ means ‘in addition to’ or ‘apart from’. What are you working on besides the research project? As an adverb, it means ‘furthermore’. He was not selected because he did not have a good grasp of his concepts. Besides, he did not seem very keen.

As mentioned above, the distinction between the two words is sometimes ignored. ‘Besides’ can never mean ‘at the side of’, but ‘beside’ is often used in place of ‘besides’. This can lead to misunderstanding, though; the sentence There was no one beside him in the hall could mean that ‘he’ was all by himself, or that there was no one next to him.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:58:56 | 显示全部楼层

(32) Principle and Principal


Principle and Principal

‘Principle’ and ‘principle’ are often confused but do not, in fact, share any meanings.

‘Principle’ is only a noun and usually refers to a rule or standard. ‘The principles of socialism’, for example, refers to the tenets of the socialist ideology. ‘My principles prevent me from taking such petty action’ suggests that the speaker’s moral/ethical stand is against the action being spoken of.

‘Principal’, on the other hand, is both a noun and an adjective. As a noun, it has special financial and legal connotations, but in general usage it refers to someone who holds a high position or is important in a certain context: ‘a meeting of all the principals involved in the deal’. As an adjective it has the sense of ‘most important’: ‘My principal concern is to get my health back’.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 22:59:23 | 显示全部楼层

(33) Stationery and Stationary


Stationery and Stationary

These two words are among the most frequently confused in the English language, although their meanings are vastly different.

‘Stationery’ is a noun that refers to writing material and office supplies such as pens, paper, clips, etc.

‘Stationary’ is generally an adjective that is used to describe something that is not moving. For example, a man who is standing in one place can be described as stationary.

The difference in the spellings of the two words can be used to remember their meanings: the second ‘a’ in ‘stationary’ can be thought to stand for ‘adjective’. It is replaced by an ‘e’ in ‘stationery’.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:00:33 | 显示全部楼层

(34) Was and Were


Was and Were

The basic difference between ‘were’ and ‘was’ is obvious: ‘were’ is used when the number of objects or entities exceeds one, as in We were late for the dinner; ‘was’ is used when only one object or entity is being referred to, as in I was late for the dinner.

There are, however, nuances in their use. For example, Everyone was well-dressedseems incorrect because ‘everyone’ refers to more than one person. However, here the implication of the pronoun comes into play; ‘everyone’ refers to all the members of a group individually, as do ‘none’ (None of us was well-dressed) and ‘each’ (Each of us was well-dressed). Hence, ‘was’ is used after these words instead of ‘were’. On the other hand, ‘all’ refers collectively to the entire group (All of us were well-dressed).

This does not mean, however, that ‘all’ and ‘were’ necessarily always go together. When ‘all’ is used with countable nouns, it is correct to use ‘were’, as in All the apples were stale. However, when it is used with non-countable nouns, which are in the singular form, ‘was’ must be used, as in All the milk was over.

What about The examination was failed by all the students? This, too, can be confusing. After all, here ‘all’ refers to the collective student body but ‘was’ is used. This is because the verb ‘was’ acts on the singular ‘examination’, not on the phrase ‘all the students’. If the subject (‘examination’) were to be pluralised (‘examinations’), ‘was’ would have to replaced by ‘were’.

Lastly, the use of ‘were’ as the past subjunctive of the present ‘to be’ is important. A subjunctive is used to express possibility, hope, supposition, etc, rather than to state a fact. Hence, we say If I/he were famous... instead of If I/he was famous...


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:01:41 | 显示全部楼层

(35) Double Negatives


Double Negatives

A double negative is when two negatives used in a sentence cancel each other out to make a positive. This must not be misunderstood to mean that double negatives are an accepted grammatical device; they are grammatically incorrect and must not be used.

How does one avoid double negatives? It is quite simple. When using the negative form of a verb (e.g. aren’t, don’t, won’t, etc), do not follow it up with a negative determiner/quantifier (e.g. nowhere, nothing, never, etc). Consider the following sentences:

They aren’t going nowhere.

They don’t do nothing.

They won’t never stop.

All of the above employ the double negative, and are hence grammatically incorrect. Formerly, the double negative was a device for emphasis, but the effort to make English conform grammatically to formal logic has rendered it unacceptable today. Logically, the meanings of the above sentences, deduced by applying the formulanegative + negative = positive, are:

They are going somewhere. (aren’t + nowhere = somewhere)

They do something. (don’t + nothing = something)

They will stop. (won’t + never = will)

The ban on multiple negatives also applies to combination with adverbs such ashardly and scarcely. It is therefore regarded as incorrect to say I couldn't hardly do itor The vehicle has scarcely no fuel.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:02:19 | 显示全部楼层

(36)To, Too and Two


To, Too and Two

It is best to be clear on the meanings of these three words so as not to confuse them in everyday usage.

To

‘To’ functions as

  • A preposition, in which case it always precedes a noun, as in I am going to school and He is on his way home.

  • An infinitive, in which case it always precedes a verb, as in I am going to studyand I am going to take a vacation.


Too

‘Too’ functions

  • As a synonym for ‘also’, as in I would like to come, too and He worked on the project, too.

  • As a synonym for ‘excessively’, where it precedes an adjective or an adverb, as inI am too tired to continue or This pastrami is much too salty.


Two

‘Two’ is the number that follows ‘one’ and precedes ‘three’. It has no other meaning.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:03:04 | 显示全部楼层

(37) Either and Neither


Either and Neither

It is important to grasp the meanings and difference between ‘either’ and ‘neither’ and to not be confused about their usage.

Both words can be used as pronoun, conjunction and adjective; however, the use of ‘either’ is considered positive, while the use of ‘neither’ is considered negative.

  • As adjective:

‘Either’ indicates one or the other, or both. For example:

  • You may use either hand for the purpose. = You may use your right or left hand for the purpose.
  • There were tall houses on either side of the river. = There were tall houses on both sides of the river.

               ‘Neither’ indicates not one or the other; none of the two. For example;

Neither twin was invited to the wedding. = None of the twins was invited to the wedding.

  • As pronoun:

‘Either’ indicates one or the other. For example:


  • Both buses are headed in that direction, you can get on either. = Both buses are headed in that direction, you can get on one or the other.

            ‘Neither’ indicates not one or the other. For example:


  • Both pups were pure-breed, but neither displayed the characteristic traits of its breed. = Both pups were pure-breed, but not one or the other displayed the characteristic traits of its breed.

  • As conjunction:

‘Either’ is used with ‘or’ to imply a choice of alternatives. For example:


  • You can either play on the computer or watch TV. = You can do one of two things: play on the computer or watch TV.

‘Neither’ is used with ‘nor’ to negate both parts of a statement. For example:


  • I can neither play on the computer nor watch TV. = I cannot play on the computer or watch TV.

‘Either’ is also used as an adverb, to mean ‘also’, following negative expressions. For example:

  • If you don’t go, I won’t go either. = If you stay, I will stay also.

‘Neither’, on the other hand, is not used as an adverb.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:03:28 | 显示全部楼层

(38)Your and You're


Your and You're

‘Your’ is the second person possessive adjective, or, in simpler terms, it is used to describe something as belonging to you. It is nearly always followed by a noun. For example,

  • Is this your wallet?
  • Your presence at the table is very much appreciated.
  • What happened to your foot?

‘You're’ is the contraction of ‘you are’ and is often followed by the present participle, ie, verb form ending in ‘ing’. For example,

  • You’re looking ill.
  • You’re going to be late.
  • You’re a fool.

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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:04:01 | 显示全部楼层

(39) Could, Would and Should


Could, Would and Should

‘Would’, ‘should’ and ‘could’ are auxiliary verbs, meaning that their function is to assist main verbs. For example, in the sentence, ‘I would like to meet him’, ‘like’ is the main verb that is assisted by ‘would’. They can be defined as the past tenses respectively of will, shall and can, but each has many uses that sometimes even express the present tense. It is important to be able to differentiate between the three so as not to use them incorrectly. We shall discuss some of the common functions of the three words here.

Would

  • To ask questions:


Would you like to see the doctor? = Do you want to see the doctor?

  • With ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘why’, ‘how’:


How would he react?
What would she do?


In both sentences, ‘would’ is more or less interchangeable with ‘will’.

  • To make polite requests:


I would like more salad, please. = I want more salad, please.

  • To show a different response if the past had been different:


I would have done something if I had known you were in trouble. = I didn't know that you were in. This is why I did not do anything to help.

  • To explain an outcome to a hypothetical situation:


Were I to win a million dollars, I would go on a world cruise. = If I win a million dollars, I will go on a world cruise.

  • To show habitual past action:


The dog would howl whenever its owner would leave it alone at home.


Think of ‘would’ as ‘did’.

  • To show preference between two choices, used with rather or sooner:


I would sooner face the punishment than lie and escape it. = I prefer speaking the truth to lying.

  • To show intention:


He said he would do it. = He said it was his intention to do it.

Should

  • To ask questions (it is generally interchangeable with ‘ought’ in such cases):


Should I submit my assignment now? = Am I supposed to submit my assignment now?

  • To show obligation:


You should brush your teeth twice a day.

Here, too, ‘should’ can be replaced with ‘ought to’, but in this context it is used to make a persuasive statement.

  • To express a hypothetical situation:


Should you wish to do so, you may. = If you wish to do so, you may.

  • To express what is likely:


If you take the highway, you should be there in two hours.


Here ‘should’ means something like ‘probably will’.

Could

  • As the past tense of can:


There was I time when I could run a mile without breaking a sweat.

  • To ask questions:


Could I submit my assignment now? = Am I allowed to submit my assignment now?

  • To show possibility:


You could do a lot better. = You have the potential to do a lot better.

  • To express tentativeness or politeness:


I could be wrong. = I may be wrong.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:04:35 | 显示全部楼层

(40)Till and Until


Till and Until

English speakers are often found asking for the difference(s) between the words ‘till’ and ‘until’. The fact of the matter is, however, that when ‘till’ acts as a preposition or conjunction, there is no difference between the two words.

To clarify, ‘till’ has multiple meanings: it works as a noun, verb, preposition and conjunction. ‘Until’, on the other hand, works only as a preposition and a conjunction; in these capacities, both words mean exactly the same thing and are thus entirely interchangeable. ‘Till’ is actually the older word. ‘Until’ was formed by the addition to it of the prefix ‘un-’, meaning ‘up to’. Today, as the first word in a sentence, ‘until’ is generally preferred.


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:05:09 | 显示全部楼层

(41)Of and Off


Of and Off

The words ‘of’ and ‘off’ are used so frequently in modern English that people often confuse them. For example, the sentence, ‘He took off without a word’ could be mistakenly written as ‘He took of without a word’, and the meaning would be lost. Let us discuss the distinctions between the two words.

The word ‘of’ has several functions, but it is most in use as a preposition that denotes various relations described in the sentence. For instance, it indicates a point of reckoning: ‘South of the border.’ It is also commonly used to point out what something is made of or what it contains: ‘Heart of gold’ (this is metaphorical, of course), ‘Cup of tea’. Another relation frequently described by ‘of’ is that of possession, as in ‘Queen of England.’

‘Off’ is also a very common word with large number of functions as well, but it is most frequently used as an adverb or a preposition. As an adverb, it is used usually to describe a state of discontinuance, or suspension: ‘Turn off the light.’ As a preposition, it is used to indicate the physical separation or distance from a position of rest, attachment or union, as in ‘Take it off the table’ or ‘The gas station is just off the corner ahead.’


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 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:05:42 | 显示全部楼层
More Common Mistakes

This page contains a list of more common mistakes which are commonly made by English learners,

In and Inside
Do and Does
Tell and Say
Will and Going to
Idle and Idol
Allusion and Illusion
Plain and Plane
Irrelevant and Irreverent
Effective and Efficient
Which and Who
Born and Borne
Desert and Dessert
Cereal and Serial
Brake and Break
Pray and Prey
Wait and Weight
Suit and Suite
Wave and Waive
Tire and Tyre
Aesthetic and Ascetic
Anecdote and Antidote
Marital and Martial
Coma and Comma

点评

这里所列的单词区别释义呢?  详情 回复 发表于 2018-6-20 15:38
鲜花(53) 鸡蛋(0)
Pgain 发表于 2012-10-11 04:07:56 | 显示全部楼层
值得分享!
鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-11 06:23:45 | 显示全部楼层
很多有点太简单,中国人一般不会犯的错误!
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Kristin 发表于 2018-6-20 12:11:57 | 显示全部楼层
必须顶  
鲜花(67) 鸡蛋(0)
zspkd 发表于 2018-6-20 15:19:28 | 显示全部楼层
说到底,还是英语学得不扎实!
鲜花(67) 鸡蛋(0)
zspkd 发表于 2018-6-20 15:38:14 | 显示全部楼层
ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-10 23:05
More Common Mistakes

This page contains a list of more common mistakes which are commonly made b ...

这里所列的单词区别释义呢?
鲜花(132) 鸡蛋(3)
东南西北人 发表于 2018-6-20 15:54:32 | 显示全部楼层
呵呵,很早以前的资料
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