设为首页收藏本站--- 驰名中外的国际土木工程技术交流平台!

东南西北人

 找回密码
 注册

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

总共8816条微博

动态微博

本站帖子精华之精华汇总 Best of the Best英语口语、听力、翻译、考试学习经验交流与探讨1000多土木工程类行业软件、计算表格和计算工具免费下载东南西北人网站QQ精英群 QQ189615688
中国土木工程师手册(上中下)东南西北人英文资料走马观花500多专业手册、工程手册100多个专业词典大汇总
如何获取积分和金币?精彩施工和土木工程技术视频东南西北人英汉对照资料汇总各版块精彩讨论贴汇总!
查看: 643|回复: 12

学习英语动词 Learning English Verbs

[复制链接]
鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-7 07:14:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Verbs

A verb is a word that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being.

Types of Verbs

We can divide verbs into transitive and intransitive verbs.

Transitive Verbs: These verbs involve a direct object.

Example 1: The boy throws the ball.

Here ‘throws’ is the verb and ‘ball’ is the direct object.

Example 2: The man reads the book.

Here ‘reads’ is the verb and ‘book’ is the direct object

Intransitive Verbs: These verbs do not involve a direct object.

Example 1: The boy throws.

Here the verb ‘throws’ is used intransitively.

Example 2: The man reads quickly.

Here the verb ‘reads’ is used intransitively.


List of Verbs, Verb Examples
Accept
Disagree
Obey
Achieve
Drag
Offend
Add
Drive
Offer
Admire
Drop
Open
Admit
Earn
Paint
Adopt
Eat
Pay
Advise
Employ
Pick
Agree
Encourage
Play
Allow
Enjoy
Pray
Announce
Establish
Print
Appreciate
Estimate
Pull
Approve
Exercise
Punch
Argue
Expand
Punish
Arrive
Explain
Purchase
Ask
Fear
Push
Assist
Feel
Quit
Attack
Fight
Race
Bake
Find
Read
Bathe
Fly
Relax
Be
Forget
Remember
Beat
Forgive
Reply
Become
Fry
Retire
Beg
Gather
Rub
Behave
Get
See
Bet
Give
Select
Boast
Glow
Sell
Boil
Greet
Send
Borrow
Grow
Sing
Breathe
Guess
Snore
Bring
Harass
Stand
Build
Hate
Stare
Burn
Hear
Start
Bury
Help
Stink
Buy
Hit
Study
Call
Hope
Sweep
Catch
Identify
Swim
Challenge
Interrupt
Take
Change
Introduce
Talk
Cheat
Irritate
Teach
Chew
Jump
Tear
Choose
Keep
Tell
Clap
Kick
Thank
Clean
Kiss
Travel
Collect
Laugh
Type
Compare
Learn
Understand
Complain
Leave
Use
Confess
Lend
Visit
Confuse
Lie
Wait
Construct
Like
Walk
Control
Listen
Want
Copy
Lose
Warn
Count
Love
Wed
Create
Make
Weep
Cry
Marry
Wink
Damage
Measure
Worry
Dance
Meet
Write
Deliver
Move
Yell
Destroy
Murder


鲜花鸡蛋

Pgain  在2012-10-7 17:53  送朵鲜花  并说:我非常同意你的观点,送朵鲜花鼓励一下
鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-7 07:15:19 | 显示全部楼层

Regular and Irregular Verbs


(1) Regular and Irregular Verbs

The distinction between regular verbs and irregular verbs is a very simple one:

Regular Verbs

Those verbs that form their past participle with ‘d’ or ‘ed’ are regular verbs. These verbs do not undergo substantial changes while changing forms between tenses.

  • If the verb ends with a vowel, only ‘d’ is added. For example:

PRESENT TENSE                             PAST TENSE

Share                                                   Shared

Scare                                                   Scared

Dare                                                     Dared

  • If the verb ends with a consonant, ‘ed’ is added. For example:

PRESENT TENSE                             PAST TENSE

Want                                                   Wanted

Shout                                                  Shouted

Kill                                                       Killed


Irregular Verbs

Those verbs that undergo substantial changes when changing forms between tenses are irregular verbs. The changed forms of these verbs are often unrecognisably different from the originals. For example:

                        PRESENT TENSE                             PAST TENSE

                        Go                                                       Went

                        Run                                                     Ran

                        Think                                                   Thought


There is no way to tell what form an irregular verb is going to take in a changed tense; the only option for an English speaker is to commit the changes to memory. With practice, it will become a matter of habit.


鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-7 07:15:50 | 显示全部楼层

(2) Finite and Non-finite


Finite and Non-finite Verbs

Examine the following sentences:

I drove to the concert.

He broke the vase.

She will take it off your hands soon.

The verbs in the above sentences are ‘drove’, ‘broke’ and ‘take’. These are finite verbs; verbs whose form is governed by the subject of the sentence. What this means is that these verbs change their form depending on person (first person, second person, third person, singular/plural) and tense. For example, ‘drove’ is the past tense of ‘drive’. Thus, if sentence were to be in the present tense, it would be I drive.... Similarly, if ‘I’ were to be replaced by ‘he’, it would be He drives. Finite verbs can form independent clauses, i.e. clauses that can work as complete sentences.

Non-finite verbs, on the other hand, are those that do not change form based upon the subject. These are of three types:

  • Participle – this includes the past and present participles of verbs, which function as adjectives (the dying man, the sleeping giant, etc).
  • Gerund – this refers to verbs (in their –ing form) that function as nouns (the writing on the wall, exercising is a necessary activity for continued good health).
  • Infinitive – the verb in its basic form, often but not necessarily preceded by ‘to’, functioning as noun (to finish the task without any more hitches was his goal), adjective (I’m sorry, I have much work to do at the moment), or adverb (he called to discuss the matter).

鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-7 07:16:15 | 显示全部楼层

(3) Participles, Gerunds & Infinitives


Participles, Gerunds & Infinitives

Participles, gerunds and Infinitives are called verbals. Verbals are words which are formed from a verb but which function as a different part of speech.


PARTICIPLE

A participle is usually formed by adding –ing or –ed to a verb. It functions as an adjective.

Examples:The singing bird was the main attraction at the event.
                The injured man was waiting for the doctor.


GERUND

A gerund is formed by adding –ing to a verb. It functions as a noun.

Examples: Sameer likes reading books.
               Smoking is prohibited in the hospital.


INFINITIVE

An infinitive is formed by using the word ‘to’ plus the verb in its stem word. It functions as a noun, adjective or adverb.

Examples:He was made to clean his room.
                Shalini loves to talk.


鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-7 07:16:42 | 显示全部楼层

(4) Auxiliary Verbs


Auxiliary Verbs

There are 4 auxiliary verbs in the English language:

Be

Have

Will

Do


Each of these is followed by another verb, known as the full verb, in order to form

  • Questions
  • Negative statements
  • Compound tense
  • Passive voice

Be

‘Be’ can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. It must first be noted that ‘be’ is an irregular verb:

            Simple present: I am, he/she/it is, we/they are

            Simple past: I/he/she/it was, we/they were

            Past participle: been

For compound tense (present/past continuous), use the ‘-ing’ form of the full verb with  the appropriate form of ‘be’.

            Present continuous: He is playing outside.

            Past continuous: He was playing outside.

            Present perfect continuous: He has been playing outside.

            Past perfect continuous: He had been playing outside.

For passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb with the appropriate form of ‘be’.

            Simple past/present: The damage is/was done.

            Present/past perfect: The damage has been/had been done.

            Future: The damage will be done.  

Have

‘Have’ is also both an auxiliary and a full verb, and is irregular as well.

            Simple present: I/you/we/they have, he/she/it has

            Simple past: had

            Past participle: had

It is used to form compound tenses in active and passive voice.

Compound Tenses - Active Voice:

Present Perfect Simple: He has played outside.

Past Perfect Simple: He had played outside.

Present Perfect Continuous: He has been playing outside.

Past Perfect Continuous: He had been playing outside

Compound Tenses - Passive Voice:

Present/Past Continuous: The house has/had been built.


Will


‘Will’ functions only as an auxiliary verb, and is used to form the future tenses. It remains the same for all forms.


            Simple future: He will play outside.

            Future perfect: He will have played outside.


Do


‘Do’ can be used as both an auxiliary and a full verb, and is irregular.


            Simple present: I/we/you/they do, he/she/it/ does

            Simple past: did

            Past participle: did


As an auxiliary, ‘do’ is used in negative sentences and questions with most verbs (use the infinitive of the full verb) in simple past and simple present forms.


‘Do’ in Negative Sentences:

           

            Simple present: He does not play outside.

            Simple past: He did not play outside.


‘Do’ in Questions:

           

            Simple present: Does he play outside?

            Simple past: Did he play outside?


In the following four cases, ‘do’ is not used in negative sentences or questions:

           

  • When the full verb is ‘be’:

Are you alright?

  • The sentence already has an auxiliary verb:

He is not playing outside.

  • The sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should):

We must not be caught.

  • The question asks for the subject:

Who wrote that book?


鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-7 07:17:08 | 显示全部楼层

(5) Stative Verbs


Stative Verbs

Stative verbs are verbs that describe a state rather than an action. When describing states, they never the continuous (‘-ing’) form. Here are some examples of stative verbs and instances of their correct and incorrect usage.


STATIVE VERB

CORRECT USAGE

INCORRECT USAGE

Like

I like you.

I am liking you.

Love

I love you.

I am loving you.

Hate

I hate you.

I am hating you

Appear

It appears to be cloudy.

It is appearing to be cloudy.

Believe

I believe in God.

I am  believing in God.

Fit

This shoe fits me.

This shoe is fitting me.

Sound

This song sounds good.

This song is sounding good.

Remember

I remember everything.

I am remembering everything.



鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
 楼主| ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-10-7 07:17:32 | 显示全部楼层

(6) Modal Verbs


Modal Verbs

There are 10 modal verbs in the English language:


  • Can
  • Could
  • May
  • Might
  • Will
  • Would
  • Must
  • Shall
  • Should
  • Ought to

Uses:

  • To indicate that something is probable or possible, or not so. For example:
  • It is sunny today; it must be warm outside. = It is sunny today; it is probably warm outside.
  • His mobile is not reachable; he may/might/could be travelling by metro. = His mobile is not reachable; it is possible that he is travelling by metro.
  • This can’t be our bill. = It is not possible that this is our bill.
  • ‘Can’ and ‘could’ are used to refer to skills and abilities. For example:
  • He can cover a hundred metres in under ten seconds.
  • My father could see perfectly before the age of fifty.
  • I can’t ride a horse.
  • ‘Must’ is used to indicate that something is necessary or of extreme importance, and ‘should’ is used to suggest that something is advisable. For example:
  • You must do your homework.
  • You mustn’t skip school.
  • You should say sorry.
  • You shouldn’t smoke.
  • ‘Can’, ‘could’ and ‘may’ are used to ask for, give and withhold permission. For example:
  • Can I try my hand at it?
  • Could we disperse early today?
  • You may not enter the premises.
  • ‘Will’ and ‘would’ are used to refer to habits and inclinations.
  • When I was a child, I would often climb trees.
  • I will never refuse you anything.
  • He would never do such a thing.

These verbs differ from ordinary verbs in 3 respects. These differences can be observed in the examples given above:

  • When used with the third person singular (he, she), they don’t require the addition of an ‘s’.
  • They can be used to form questions by inverting the structure of the sentence.
  • They can be followed directly by the verb, without the use of ‘to’.

鲜花(53) 鸡蛋(0)
Pgain 发表于 2012-10-7 17:55:02 | 显示全部楼层
鲜花(0) 鸡蛋(1)
flyingegg 发表于 2016-9-30 04:32:11 | 显示全部楼层
顶也~  
鲜花(0) 鸡蛋(0)
mastercard 发表于 2017-3-10 05:17:02 | 显示全部楼层
初来乍到,请多多关照。。。  
鲜花(0) 鸡蛋(0)
mastercard 发表于 2019-7-10 22:29:35 | 显示全部楼层
鲜花(3) 鸡蛋(0)
djun 发表于 2019-7-11 05:09:21 | 显示全部楼层
资料很不错。
鲜花(69) 鸡蛋(0)
zspkd 发表于 2019-7-15 10:31:26 | 显示全部楼层
不错,知道了很多专业术语。
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

QQ|关于我们|QQ即时充值|站点统计|手机版|小黑屋|百宝箱|留言|咨询|微信订阅|QQ189615688|东南西北人

GMT+8, 2019-11-23 05:07 , Processed in 0.243712 second(s), 42 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表