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Evaluation of Soil and Rock Properties 岩土性状评价

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chunqiu 发表于 2012-3-10 23:40:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Evaluation of Soil and Rock Properties

P.J. Sabatini, R.C. Bachus, P.W. Mayne, J.A. Schneider, T.E. Zettler

April 2002

Evaluation of Soil and rock Properties.part1.rar (4.29 MB, 下载次数: 1)

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 楼主| chunqiu 发表于 2012-3-10 23:45:55 | 显示全部楼层
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1....................................................................................................... 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 DOCUMENT ORGANIZATION.......................................................................................... 2
CHAPTER 2...................................................................................................... 4
2.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 4
2.2 PROCESS OF SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTY SELECTION ......................................... 4
2.3 USE OF CORRELATIONS TO ASSIST PROPERTY SELECTION.............................. 7
2.4 USE OF OBSERVATIONAL METHOD............................................................................. 9
CHAPTER 3..................................................................................................... 10
3.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 10
3.2 PLANNING THE SUBSURFACE INVESTIGATION AND LABORATORY TESTING
PROGRAM........................................................................................................................... 10
3.2.1 General............................................................................................................................10
3.2.2 Identify Data Needs .........................................................................................................10
3.2.3 Gather and Analyze Existing Information .......................................................................11
3.2.4 Conduct Site Visit ............................................................................................................17
3.2.5 Develop Preliminary Site Model .....................................................................................18
3.2.6 Developing a Site Investigation Program ........................................................................20
3.2.7 Developing a Laboratory Testing Program......................................................................22
CHAPTER 4..................................................................................................... 26
4.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 26
4.2 BORING METHODS........................................................................................................... 27
4.3 SAMPLING METHODS...................................................................................................... 32
4.3.1 Disturbed Sampling of Soil..................................................................................................32
4.3.2 Undisturbed Sampling of Soil..............................................................................................34
4.3.2.1 General........................................................................................................................34
4.3.2.2 Overview of Thin-Walled Tube Sampling ..................................................................39
4.3.3 Rock Coring.........................................................................................................................42
4.4 STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT)...................................................................... 44
4.4.1 General................................................................................................................................44
4.4.2 Procedures...........................................................................................................................45
4.4.3 Parameters Measured...........................................................................................................45
4.5 CONE PENETRATION TESTS (CPT / CPTU / SCPTU)................................................ 48
4.5.1 General................................................................................................................................48
4.5.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................50
4.5.3 Procedures...........................................................................................................................52
4.5.4 Parameters Measured...........................................................................................................54
4.6 FLAT DILATOMETER TEST (DMT) .............................................................................. 56
4.6.1 General................................................................................................................................56
4.6.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................56
4.6.3 Procedures...........................................................................................................................56
4.6.4 Parameters Measured...........................................................................................................58
4.7 PRESSUREMETER TEST (PMT) ..................................................................................... 58
4.7.1 General................................................................................................................................58
4.7.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................59
4.7.3 Procedures...........................................................................................................................59
4.7.4 Parameters Measured...........................................................................................................60
4.8 VANE SHEAR TEST (VST) ................................................................................................ 62
4.8.1 General................................................................................................................................62
4.8.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................................62
4.8.3 Procedures...........................................................................................................................63
4.8.4 Parameters Measured...........................................................................................................64
4.9 USE OF DRILL RIGS TO PERFORM IN-SITU TESTS ................................................ 65
4.10. IN-SITU TESTING IN ROCK ............................................................................................ 65
4.10.1 General............................................................................................................................65
4.10.2 Borehole Dilatometer.......................................................................................................66
4.10.3 Borehole Jack...................................................................................................................67
4.10.4 In-situ Direct Shear Testing .............................................................................................67
4.11 GEOPHYSICAL TESTING ................................................................................................ 68
4.12 LABORATORY SOIL TESTING....................................................................................... 74
4.12.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................74
4.12.2 Quality Assurance for Laboratory Testing ......................................................................74
4.12.2.1 Sample Tracking ..........................................................................................................74
4.12.2.2 Sample Storage ............................................................................................................78
4.12.2.3 Sample Handling..........................................................................................................78
4.12.2.4 Specimen Selection......................................................................................................78
4.12.3 Effects of Sample Disturbance.........................................................................................79
4.12.4 Laboratory Index Tests for Soils......................................................................................82
4.12.4.1 General........................................................................................................................82
4.12.4.2 Moisture Content .........................................................................................................82
4.12.4.3 Unit Weight..................................................................................................................83
4.12.4.4 Atterberg Limits...........................................................................................................83
4.12.4.5 Particle Size Distribution .............................................................................................86
4.12.4.6 Laboratory Classification.............................................................................................87
4.12.4.7 Specific Gravity ...........................................................................................................87
4.12.4.8 Organic Content...........................................................................................................87
4.12.4.9 Electro Chemical Classification Tests .........................................................................88
4.12.5 Laboratory Performance Tests for Soils ..........................................................................88
4.12.5.1 General........................................................................................................................88
4.12.5.2 Consolidation ...............................................................................................................89
4.12.5.3 Soil Strength.................................................................................................................92
4.12.5.4 Permeability .................................................................................................................99
4.13 LABORATORY ROCK TESTS........................................................................................ 102
4.13.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................102
4.13.2 Laboratory Testing of Rock ...........................................................................................104
4.13.2.1 Point-Load Strength Test ...........................................................................................104
4.13.2.2 Unconfined Compressive Strength of Intact Rock Core............................................105
4.13.2.3 Elastic Moduli of Intact Rock Core ...........................................................................106
4.13.2.4 Laboratory Direct Shear Test.....................................................................................106
鲜花(11) 鸡蛋(0)
 楼主| chunqiu 发表于 2012-3-10 23:46:08 | 显示全部楼层
CHAPTER 5................................................................................................... 108
5.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 108
5.2 INTERPRETATION OF SUBSURFACE STRATIGRAPHY....................................... 108
5.2.1 General..............................................................................................................................108
5.2.2 Soil Classification by Soil Sampling and Drilling.............................................................108
5.2.3 Soil Classification by Cone Penetration Testing ...............................................................112
5.2.4 Soil Classification using the Flat-Plate Dilatometer..........................................................117
5.2.5 Generating a Subsurface Profile ........................................................................................118
5.3 IN-SITU STRESS STATE.................................................................................................. 123
5.3.1 General..............................................................................................................................123
5.3.2 Overburden Stresses...........................................................................................................123
5.3.3 Horizontal Stresses.............................................................................................................124
5.4 CONSOLIDATION PROPERTIES OF SOIL................................................................. 125
5.4.1 General..............................................................................................................................125
5.4.2 Laboratory Consolidation Tests.........................................................................................125
5.4.2.1 General.......................................................................................................................125
5.4.2.2 Soil Parameters from Laboratory Consolidation Tests..............................................126
5.4.2.3 Selection of Samples for Laboratory Consolidation Testing.....................................126
5.4.2.4 Evaluation of σp′ from Laboratory Consolidation Tests............................................128
5.4.2.5 Evaluation of Cc and Cr..............................................................................................130
5.4.2.6 Laboratory Evaluation of cv .......................................................................................131
5.4.2.7 Evaluation of Cαε .......................................................................................................134
5.4.3 Evaluation of σp′ from In-situ Test Methods .....................................................................136
5.4.4 Evaluation of ch from CPTu Dissipation Data...................................................................140
5.4.5 Selection of Design Values for Consolidation Analyses ...................................................142
5.5 GENERAL STRESS-STRAIN AND STIFFNESS PROPERTIES ................................ 146
5.5.1 Background.......................................................................................................................146
5.5.2 Settlement Analysis for Soils.............................................................................................147
5.5.3 Method to Evaluate Equivalent Elastic Modulus...............................................................148
5.5.4 Evaluation of Shear Wave Velocity...................................................................................151
5.5.4.1 General.......................................................................................................................151
5.5.4.2 Field Measurements of Shear Wave Velocity ...........................................................151
5.5.5 Correlations for Small-Strain Shear Modulus....................................................................154
5.5.6 Evaluation of Modulus Degradation Value .......................................................................155
5.5.7 Summary ............................................................................................................................156
5.6 SHEAR STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF SOIL.............................................................. 156
5.6.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................156
5.6.2 Fundamental Concepts of Soil Shear Strength ..................................................................159
5.6.2.1 Drained versus Undrained Loading ...........................................................................159
5.6.2.2 Drained Stress-Strain-Strength Behavior...................................................................160
5.6.2.3 Undrained Stress-Strain-Strength Behavior...............................................................162
5.6.2.4 Effective Stress Parameters........................................................................................163
5.6.2.5 Total Stress Parameters..............................................................................................167
5.6.3 Relevance of Design Applications to Soil Shear Strength Evaluation ..............................167
5.6.4 Laboratory Testing Methods for Evaluating Soil Shear Strength......................................168
5.6.4.1 Selection of Laboratory Testing Method ...................................................................168
5.6.4.2 Triaxial Testing..........................................................................................................169
5.6.4.3 Direct Shear Testing ..................................................................................................175
5.6.4.4 Unconfined Compression Testing..............................................................................178
5.6.4.5 Relevance of Laboratory Strength Tests to Field Conditions....................................179
5.6.5 Undrained Shear Strength from In-situ Tests ....................................................................180
5.6.6 Drained Friction Angle of Granular Soils from In-situ Tests ............................................184
5.6.7 Selection of Total Stress Parameters (su) for Undrained Strength Design Analyses.........187
5.6.8 Selection of Effective Stress Parameters (φ′, c′) for Design Analyses ..............................189
5.7 HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY PROPERTIES OF SOIL.......................................... 189
5.7.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................189
5.7.2 Laboratory Output/Data Reduction....................................................................................190
5.7.3 Correlation Methods ..........................................................................................................191
5.7.4 Interpretation Methods.......................................................................................................193
CHAPTER 6................................................................................................... 195
6.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 195
6.2 ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION ................................................................................... 196
6.2.1 Description of Rock Masses ..........................................................................................196
6.2.2 Core Recovery and Rock Quality Designation..............................................................200
6.2.3 CSIR Classification........................................................................................................202
6.3 ROCK UNIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH........................................................ 204
6.4 ROCK DEFORMATION MODULUS VALUES ............................................................ 204
6.4.1 Intact Rock Modulus......................................................................................................204
6.4.2 Rock Mass Modulus ......................................................................................................206
6.4.2.1 Method Based On Rock Mass Rating........................................................................206
6.4.2.2 Method Based on RQD..............................................................................................207
6.4.2.3 Use of In situ Tests to Evaluate Rock Mass Modulus ...............................................208
6.4.3 Selection of Rock Deformation Modulus for Design ....................................................211
6.5 ROCK SHEAR STRENGTH............................................................................................. 211
6.5.1 Mohr-Coulomb Materials ..............................................................................................211
6.5.2 Shear Strength Of Discontinuities .................................................................................213
6.5.2.1 General.......................................................................................................................213
6.5.2.2 Friction Angle of Rock Surfaces................................................................................213
6.5.2.3 Surface Roughness.....................................................................................................214
6.5.2.4 Measurement of Surface Roughness..........................................................................216
6.5.2.5 Discontinuity Infilling................................................................................................217
6.5.2.6. Effect of Water on Shear Strength .............................................................................218
6.5.2.7 Laboratory Direct Shear Testing................................................................................222
6.5.3 Shear Strength Of Fractured Rock Masses ....................................................................223
6.5.3.1 General.......................................................................................................................223
6.5.3.2 Strength Determination by Back Analysis of Failures ..............................................223
6.5.3.3 Hoek-Brown Strength Criteria for Fractured Rock Masses.......................................224
6.5.4 Selection of Rock Shear Strength for Design ................................................................227
CHAPTER 7................................................................................................... 229
7.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 229
7.2 LOESS................................................................................................................................. 230
7.2.1 Identification of Loess ...................................................................................................230
7.2.2 Issues Related to Subsurface Exploration in Loess .......................................................231
7.2.3 Laboratory Strength Testing of Loess............................................................................232
7.2.4 Evaluation of Collapse Potential....................................................................................232
7.3 EXPANSIVE SOILS........................................................................................................... 233
7.3.1 Identification of Expansive Soils ...................................................................................233
7.3.2 Evaluation of Expansion (Swell) Potential ....................................................................235
7.3.3 Shear Strength Evaluation of Expansive Soils...............................................................236
7.4 ORGANIC SOILS AND PEAT ......................................................................................... 236
7.4.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................236
7.4.2 Identification of Organic Soils and Peat ........................................................................237
7.4.3 Issues Related to Subsurface Exploration and Sampling of Organic Soils and Peat.....238
7.4.4 Shear Strength of Organic Soils and Peats ....................................................................238
7.4.5 Compressibility of Organic Soils and Peats...................................................................239
7.5 COLLUVIUM AND TALUS ............................................................................................. 240
7.5.1 Identification of Colluvium and Talus...........................................................................240
7.5.2 Issues Related to Subsurface Exploration and Testing in Colluvium............................241
7.5.3 Issues Related to Subsurface Exploration and Testing in Talus ....................................241
7.5.4 Compressibility of Colluvium and Talus.......................................................................242
7.5.5 Shear Strength of Colluvium and Talus.........................................................................242
7.6 SHALES AND DEGRADABLE MATERIALS............................................................... 243
7.6.1 Identification of Degradable Materials ..........................................................................243
7.6.2 Slake Durability Test .....................................................................................................244
7.6.3 Jar Slake Test .................................................................................................................244
7.6.4 Point-Load Test..............................................................................................................245
7.6.5 Use of Shale Material.....................................................................................................245
7.7 CEMENTED SANDS.......................................................................................................... 246
7.7.1 Identification of Cemented Sands..................................................................................246
7.7.2 Issues Related to Subsurface Exploration and Testing in Cemented Sands ..................247
7.7.3 Interpretation of Laboratory and Field Testing Results in Cemented Sands .................247
7.8 SENSITIVE CLAYS........................................................................................................... 248
7.8.1 Identification of Sensitive Clays....................................................................................248
7.8.2 Issues Related to Subsurface Exploration and Testing in Sensitive Clays ....................249
7.8.3 Interpretation of Laboratory and Field Testing Results in Sensitive Soils ....................250
7.9 PARTIALLLY SATURATED SOILS .............................................................................. 250
7.9.1 Identification of Partially Saturated Soils ......................................................................250
7.9.2 Sampling and Testing Partially Saturated Soils.............................................................251
7.9.3 Interpretation of Laboratory and Field Testing Results of Partially Saturated Soils.....251
CHAPTER 8................................................................................................... 253
8.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 253
8.2 RESOLVING INCONSISTENCIES BETWEEN TEST RESULTS ............................. 253
8.3 ESTIMATING VARIABILITY OF SELECTED PARAMETERS............................... 254
8.4 FINAL SELECTION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS...................................................... 255
REFERENCES............................................................................................... 258
APPENDIX A SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTY SELECTION EXAMPLES
Example 1 Soft to Medium Clay and Overconsolidated Clay Crust
Example 2 Piedmont Residual Soil, Weathered Rock, And Rock
Example 3 Heavily Overconsolidated Clays
APPENDIX B CALCULATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION
FROM LABORATORY DATA
APPENDIX C ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO EVALUATE HORIZONTAL
COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION VALUES FROM PIEZOCONE
DISSIPATION TESTS

鲜花鸡蛋

ljmtidilgw  在2012-3-11 06:36  送朵鲜花  并说:精彩帖子,送朵鲜花鼓励一下
鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-3-11 06:36:26 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主

很好的资料
我已经有了
鲜花(0) 鸡蛋(1)
sjzdh01 发表于 2012-3-11 07:57:02 | 显示全部楼层
这个得下载学习学习
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yfx64 发表于 2012-3-11 10:01:49 | 显示全部楼层
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beak 发表于 2012-6-13 23:27:43 | 显示全部楼层
不知道复杂岩体的特性有无
鲜花(279) 鸡蛋(4)
ljmtidilgw 发表于 2012-6-13 23:44:34 | 显示全部楼层
beak 发表于 2012-6-13 23:27
不知道复杂岩体的特性有无

复杂岩体除了原位测试,就是以下国际流行的参数提取方法,有疑问跟帖子

学Roclab程序用Hoek-Brown准则,看岩芯定岩体参数,群英聚会东南西北人!
http://www.eswnman.net/thread-15565-1-1.html
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redsun87 发表于 2012-6-14 06:55:24 | 显示全部楼层
thank
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tunqueen 发表于 2012-7-5 21:33:50 | 显示全部楼层
很不错的资料,我也已经有了。
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jj71219jj 发表于 2014-12-8 11:18:20 | 显示全部楼层
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94意大利 发表于 2016-9-20 11:21:36 | 显示全部楼层
内容分丰富,为什么不能下载了
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mastercard 发表于 2018-11-8 18:03:08 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享  
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dingbaoyan 发表于 2018-11-8 21:28:24 | 显示全部楼层
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sjzdh 发表于 2018-11-9 03:23:48 | 显示全部楼层
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