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“标准”、“规范”和“规程”术语的中英文差异

2011-1-7 21:06| 发布者: ljmtidilgw| 查看: 367| 评论: 43

摘要: 以下摘自拙作: 周永祥,等. 欧盟混凝土工程技术标准体系略览.工程建设标准化。 欢迎讨论! ===================================================== 3“标准”、“规范”和“规程”术语的中英文差异 在我国标准 ...
以下摘自拙作: 周永祥,等. 欧盟混凝土工程技术标准体系略览.工程建设标准化。
欢迎讨论!

=====================================================
3  “标准”、“规范”和“规程”术语的中英文差异
在我国标准体系中,常出现“标准”、“规范”与“规程”的称谓。它们之间常常难以区分,而多有混淆使用的情况。在《标准化工作指南第1部分:标准化和相关活动的通用词汇》(GB/T 200001-2002,与之对应的国际标准为ISO/IEC Guide2: 1996)中将这三个术语进行了定义和解释。“标准”、“技术规范”与“规程”对应的英文名词分别为:“standard”、“technical specification”和“code of practice”。广义上的标准包含了标准、规范和规程,可以统称为标准(国外即是如此)。当然,技术规范和规程也可能不被纳入标准体系中而与标准无关。
标准、规范和规程的区别使用往往是针对不同的具体对象,并且与行业习惯、文化传统以及国家体制均有关系。我国有关部门在使用这三个术语时随意性比较大,因而造成了目前标准体系中存在三个术语混用并举的现象,而且中英文的对应关系也出现了偏差或错位。
在我国建设工程标准体系中,大致而言,当针对产品、方法、符号、概念等基础标准时,一般采用“标准”;当针对工程勘察、规划、设计、施工等通用的技术事项做出规定时,一般采用“规范”;当针对操作、工艺、管理等专用技术要求时,一般采用“规程”[3]。然而,这并不与“standard”、“technical specification”汀癱ode of practice”的定义完全相符。如果需要简要概括“standard”、“specification”和“code”的差异,那么大致可以说,“standard”(狭义)一般规定“是什么”(多为静态);“specification”更多的是提出“要做到(满足)什么”;“code”则偏重于“如何做”。
“标准”、“规范”和“规程”是否有等级(地位、效力)的区别呢?有人认为:规范是强制性的,等级最高,标准次之,再次为规程;正如有人认为:“code”具有“法典”的意思,因此等级最高,其次是“standard”(狭义),再次是“specification”,接下来是“guide”、“manual”……。这种说法其实是一种误解。在我国,由于习惯,标准名称中通常要冠以“标准”、“规范”或“规程”这类的标识性词汇,正如上文所说,这些词汇的使用是针对该规范性文件所针对的内容来选择的,不存在等级的高低区分。而在国外诸多英文标准中,标准名称中可能不出现“code”、“specification”此类标识性词汇;而且,在欧洲等西方国家的标准体系中,标准的根本原则之一是“非强制性”,只有当标准被技术法规所引用成为技术法规的一部分才具有强制执行的法律效力。例如美国公路部门桥梁设计规程的第一章第一节中写道:“本规程无意取代设计人所具有的专门教育和工程判断的训练,仅在规程中规定为保证公共安全的最低要求。业主或设计人可能需要在设计中采用新的先进技术,或需对材料及施工质量提出更高的要求”;英国标准也声明:“依从英国标准并不能免除其自身的法律责任。”可见,“非强制性”原则使得标准只有范围之别而无等级之分。因此,在中外建筑工程标准体系中均不存在以“规范”、“规程”等来划分标准等级高低的情况。

本文内容由 xiangzizhou 提供

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最新评论

引用 xiangzizhou 2008-7-24 10:20
需要补充一点,在中国,标准条文中有强制性条文(也有推荐性条文),与西方标准的“非强制性”所不同。我国的标准有级别之分,分为国家标准、行业标准、地方标准、企业标准。当上一级标准存在时,下级标准在制订或修订时,应与上级标准协调。但这种级别关系不是通过所谓的'“规范”比“规程”、“规程”比“指南”、“手册”等级高来进行规定的。
引用 swjtuliujian 2008-7-25 13:19
好贴啊
引用 xiangzizhou 2008-8-6 17:34
没人顶?自己顶!
引用 muzilee 2008-9-1 17:16
好资料,工程师都应该好好看看。
引用 watch 2008-11-3 11:47
technical specification被国内多数涉外公司认为是项目需遵循的技术标准书,这些公司有电器公司,更有众多土木水利建筑公司,specification中可以引用到standard 和code,
引用 davidlau1976 2008-11-8 10:32
好贴,以前对这几种叫法不是很理解,谢谢
引用 ease2020 2008-11-18 12:31
:)
引用 alex032616 2008-12-25 03:06
“standard”(狭义)一般规定“是什么”(多为静态);“specification”更多的是提出“要做到(满足)什么”;“code”则偏重于“如何做”。
我觉得这句已经太说明问题了。
引用 wxljwjt 2008-12-25 10:43
长知识,谢谢啦
引用 redking100 2008-12-28 09:53
呵呵,说实话,自己原来也对这个词区分不是很清楚。
今天学习了,谢谢楼主
引用 redking100 2008-12-28 10:19
国内建筑与水利、电力等不同行业之间一般都有差异,比如有CODE,TECHNICAL CODE , TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION等叫法,觉得国家应该对这类进行统一,方便与国际接轨
引用 guanshanhu 2008-12-30 09:46
谢谢
引用 eisten 2008-12-30 17:00
嗯,是非常之好的帖子!!!
引用 richard1147 2008-12-30 17:05
我这里有本压力管道方面的书籍,里面谈及到标准和规范间的差别,请大家看一看,希望有助于理解标准和规范的不同,不过是英文的。

Differentiation between Codes and Standards

Codes and standards both provide criteria through which pressure integrity can be
ensured and simplified design rules to ensure adherence to the criteria. Many
designers and engineers think the terms code and standard are synonymous, or at
least somewhat interchangeable, but this understanding is incorrect.

Codes.
Piping codes provide specific design criteria such as permissible materials
of construction, allowable working stresses, and load sets that must be considered
in design. In addition, rules are provided to determine the minimum wall thickness
and structural behavior due to the effects of internal pressure, deadweight, seismic
loads, live loads, thermal expansion, and other imposed internal or external loads.
Piping codes provide design rules for nonstandard components and for the reinforce-
ment of openings in the pipe wall. They do not provide design rules for standard
in-line components such as valves, flanges, and standard fittings; rather, they define
the design requirements for these classes of components by reference to industry
standards.
The use of specific codes for the design and construction of piping systems is
frequently mandated by statute or regulations imposed by regulatory and enforce-
ment agencies.
Typically codes are structured around technology or industry user lines. For
example,ASME B31.1, Power Piping, covers piping systems in power plants, district
heating plants, district distribution piping systems, and general industrial piping
systems while ASME B31.3, Process Piping, is structured around the chemical,
petroleum, and petrochemical industries. Any one of the above-named industrial
facilities might have a pipeline with similar service requirements such as a
high-pressure steam main, a boiler feedwater line, or a cooling water line. How-
ever, the requirements of the specific code, as influenced by the needs and
experience of the user industry, will dictate the pipeline’s design and construc-
tion requirements.
Many piping design and construction codes are listed in the section ‘‘Reference
Codes and Standards.’’ The systems and subsystems covered by these codes are
defined in their scope sections. The scope sections of all potentially applicable codes
should be reviewed early in the design phase of a piping project to determine which
code, or codes, should be applied to the piping design and construction.
In some cases, multiple codes may be required for the design and construction
of the same piping system, depending upon its location. For example, a steam main
serving a petrochemical plant from a major utility’s district heating system would
be designed and constructed toASME B31.1, up to the petrochemical plant property
line. The balance of the piping on the petrochemical plant’s property would be
designed to ASME B31.3. In the case of a natural gas main serving a utility power-
house, the outdoor piping is designed and constructed to ASME B31.8 up to and
including the meter set, and the in-plant piping is designed and constructed to
ASME B31.1. For more details, refer to Chap. A4.
Sometimes, different piping systems within the same building or facility will be
designed and constructed to different codes. For example,most of the piping systems
in a utility power plant are designed and constructed to ASME B31.l. However, the
building heating and air conditioning piping systems are designed and constructed to
ASME B31.9, Building Services Piping.

Standards.
Standards provide specific design criteria and rules for individual com-
ponents or classes of components such as valves, flanges, and fittings. There are
two general types of standards: dimensional and pressure integrity.
Dimensional standards provide configuration control parameters for compo-
nents. The main purpose of dimensional standards is to ensure that similar compo-
nents manufactured by different suppliers will be physically interchangeable. Con-
formity to a particular dimensional standard during the manufacture of a product
does not imply that all such similarly configured products will provide equal perfor-
mance. For example, two different styles of NPS 10 (DN 250) Class 150 flanged-
end gate valves could be manufactured, in part, to ASME B16.10, Face-to-Face and
End-to-End Dimensions of Valves. The valves would be physically interchangeable
between mating flanges in a particular piping system. However, because of com-
pletely different seat and disk design, one valve might be capable of meeting far
more stringent seat leakage criteria than the other.
Pressure-integrity standards provide uniform minimum-performance criteria.
Components designed and manufactured to the same standards will function in an
equivalent manner. For example, all NPS 10 (DN 250) Class 150 ASTM A105
flanges, which are constructed in accordance with ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and
Flanged Fittings, have a pressure-temperature rating of 230 psig (1590 kPa gage)
at 300F (149C).
Statute or regulation does not normally mandate standards; rather they are
usually invoked by a construction code or purchaser’s specification.
引用 geoworld 2008-12-31 08:48
好。学习一下。
引用 tianlan0425 2009-1-8 12:46
:)
引用 wcschina 2009-1-10 16:44
thanks
引用 fungr 2009-1-13 16:33
看过后,受益非浅!!!
引用 sidifenghr 2009-1-15 17:21
标准”、“规范”和“规程”

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